If there’s one thing you can count on in the world of marketing (and in business) it’s that marketing is always changing and evolving. That’s one of the things that makes it so much fun — there’s always a new marketing trend or marketing technology to keep things interesting.
When I speak at events and conferences around the globe, I’m often asked for insights on where marketing is going. In other words, people already know where marketing is today, but they want to know where marketing is going tomorrow.
With all that in mind, I thought I’d share some thoughts on one of the biggest marketing trends I’ve seen in the past several decades.
Imagine this — you’re the brand manager at a popular consumer beverage company and you’ve been charged with the task of increasing market share by 2 points over the course of the next year. You have millions of dollars to accomplish the goal. So, despite the fact that your product is a mature brand, you feel confident that you can do the job.
Now imagine the same scenario but with a twist — you’re not allowed to use traditional TV commercials to help you accomplish your goal.
Impossible, you say?
Not so fast — not only is it possible, but many brand managers actually prefer not to use traditional TV because they’ll be leveraging Nonlinear Marketing — an innovative approach to marketing that is less expensive than some traditional methodologies, and in many cases, more effective.
Nonlinear Marketing is How Brands, Both Large and Small, Can Connect with Consumers in the Post Advertising Era.
Nonlinear Marketing is a strategic approach to marketing identified and expanded upon by Dr. Reshma Shah (Associate Professor in the Practice of Marketing at Emory University), and Dr. Varsha Jain (Associate Professor in Integrated Marketing Communications at MICA) and me (Jamie Turner, the CEO of 60SecondMarketer.com).
Brands such as Red Bull, AirBnB, Yeti, Starbucks and others are already using versions of Nonlinear Marketing to weave themselves into the lives of prospects and customers.
Instead of relying on a 30-second commercial to interrupt a prospect’s life with an unwanted sales pitch, these brands actually become an integral part of the consumer’s life through events, stories, experiences, interactive content, sponsorships, and even ads that are designed to envelope the consumer’s life rather than simply interrupt it.
You’ve probably already experienced Nonlinear Marketing when you clicked through on a native ad on LinkedIn, engaged with a Facebook Live video, participated in a brand-sponsored event, chatted with a brand via Twitter, watched a brand sponsored YouTube series, or engaged with any brand that was intentionally bypassing traditional (linear) marketing and weaving itself into the fabric of your life.
All this begs a question — is Nonlinear Marketing as easy as launching a series of simple marketing tactics? No, not really. It’s much more nuanced than that. And perhaps the best way to understand how Nonlinear Marketing can be used by your business is to take a look back at some of the more traditional models of consumer behavior and where they fall short.
Traditional Models of Consumer Behavior
The ultimate goal of any organization – whether it’s for profit or non-profit – is to get someone to buy what it’s selling. For Apple, the goal is to sell more computers. For Nike, it’s to get more people to purchase their athletic wear. For Uber, it’s to get more riders than its competitors do.
To achieve this, marketers have to tap into what motivates consumers to buy things and to effectively use persuasive techniques to convince them to make the purchase.
Traditionally, consumer decision-making and response models have been built around a linear understanding of how consumers buy products and services.
The idea was that consumers sequentially pass from one stage of the sales funnel to the next until they make a purchase. It was the marketer’s responsibility to track where consumers were in the sales funnel and to persuade them to move to the next stage. But there’s a problem with that — the customer journey doesn’t always follow a top-to-bottom linear path.
Whether you embrace the Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA) model of consumer response or any of the other traditional models (such as the Hierarchy of Effects model developed by Lavidge and Steiner), the models portray a linear consumer journey from the top of the funnel to the bottom of the funnel outlined in scenario #1 above.
But marketers have known for decades that prospects don’t always follow a linear path from the top to the bottom.
Sometimes, as outlined in scenario #2 above, they start in the middle of the funnel, navigate to the top of the funnel, and then make their way back down.
Other times, as outlined in scenario #3, prospects start towards the bottom, skip to the top, then jump back to the middle of the sales funnel.
The truth is that it’s almost impossible to map how consumers move through the decision-making and response process.
A “journey” implies that someone goes from here to there in the purchase funnel in some logical, orderly fashion. But as we all know, consumers may start in one place, go to another, come back to the first and then skip all the steps in between on their way to a purchase.
In addition, some decisions are made rapidly (within seconds) and others may take months or longer. Given this non-linear and unpredictable behavior, marketers have to rethink not only how they communicate with customers, but also what types of interaction, engagement, and persuasive techniques will make a difference.
Traditional marketing communication activities include advertising, sales promotion (consumer and trade promotion), and personal selling activities. They also include digital marketing, sponsorship marketing, direct marketing, database marketing and public relations.
Now consider non-traditional marketing activities such as ambient or place-based advertising, branded entertainment, promotional products marketing, product placements, guerrilla or ambush marketing, native advertising, and a variety of outdoor and transit advertising –– just to name a few.
An integration of all these promotional tools along with other components of the marketing mix is what is required for marketers to gain edge over competitors. Additionally, marketers cannot simply assume that what has worked in the past –– even for a given consumer or segment of consumers –– will work in the future.
The complexity of multi channel online and offline communication, the multi-directionality of communications and the proliferation of brand choice have made it much more important for the brand to seamlessly become a part of the consumers life and vice versa.
The consumer must also be part of the brand’s evolution by continuing to purchase the brand as it evolves in terms of forms, variations, sizes, and other product form changes.
Understanding Nonlinear Marketing and How it Differs from Traditional Marketing
Traditional (linear) marketing was all about interrupting a consumer’s life with a message about your product or service. The consumer would be enjoying a TV show, radio program, print magazine or any other form of traditional media. The brand would interrupt that experience in order to force their message into the consumer’s mind.
There were two primary drivers behind traditional marketing – frequency and engagement. If you pushed your message on consumers frequently enough, they would remember your product or service and (hopefully) purchase it.
The alternative was to engage consumers with a message that made them laugh or cry. When consumers react emotionally to a stimulus, a memory is created. When a memory is created, a consumer is more likely to purchase your product the next time they’re in a position to do so.
In some cases, larger brands were able to achieve high frequency and high engagement. Global brands like Nike, Apple, and BMW leveraged the one-two punch of frequency and engagement in a way that drove significant penetration (and revenue growth) around the globe.
But most brands don’t have the marketing muscle of these large, well-established brands. Furthermore, no matter how much marketing muscle you have, if consumers are resistant to commercial interruptions, they won’t respond to the messages anyway.
It’s also worth noting that traditional marketing lacked relevance for most of the consumers who were on the receiving side of the messages. Case in point – let’s say you’re the marketing director for Ralph Lauren Blue, a fragrance that appeals to a subset of the larger population as a whole.
Traditionally, you would run a TV campaign to build brand awareness and drive people to online or brick-and-mortar retailers who sold the product.
Your TV campaign would run during prime time on a show that might have a higher than average female viewership.
Despite running on a show targeting women, there’s still waste – perhaps 40% of the viewers might be men who aren’t necessarily in the market for perfume.
Out of the 60% remaining, you could argue that half of those wouldn’t have the demographic or psychographic make-up to purchase a Ralph Lauren fragrance. And out of the 30% of those remaining, perhaps 2/3rds had plenty of perfume already and didn’t need any more.
That leaves you with a TV campaign that’s reaching 10% of the intended audience. In other words, in order to reach that 10%, you have to waste 90% of your budget.
Can you imagine walking in to your CFO with any other business expense and trying to justify that kind of waste? “Hi Barbara, can you approve this expense? We’re going to buy light bulbs for our office building but 90% of the light bulbs we buy won’t work. Can you just sign right here so I can make the purchase?”
It’s mind-boggling. And it’s why Nonlinear Marketing is not only necessary, it’s imperative.
What Nonlinear Marketing is And What it isn’t
Nonlinear Marketing isn’t a tactic or a series of tactics. Instead, it’s a strategic approach that brands use to envelop and encompass a consumer’s life.
If traditional marketing was all about the sales funnel, then Nonlinear Marketing is about weaving an almost invisible sales web that engages with prospects as they go about their daily lives.
Instead of interrupting a passive experience (such as watching TV, listening to the radio, etc.), Nonlinear Marketing allows a brand to actively participate in aspects of the consumer’s life that they find important. When a Nonlinear Marketing sales web is created, the brand becomes inextricably woven in to the consumer’s existence.
One of the best examples of a brand that successfully used Nonlinear Marketing is AirBnB, which has avoided running large scale, traditional ad campaigns throughout most of its existence.
What kick-started AirBnB’s growth was a bit of sophisticated programming and innovative problem solving. The team found a way to cross-publish AirBnB listings on Craigslist so that whenever someone searched the Craigslist classified site for a vacation rental, listings for properties on AirBnB popped up.
The result was that AirBnB was seamlessly woven into the fabric of the consumer’s life, not in a loud, traditional, linear approach, but through a quite, innovative, and nonlinear approach.
RedBull is another example of a brand that has used Nonlinear Marketing quite effectively.
The brand weaves itself into the lives of its consumers by creating and distributing music via Red Bull Records and, quite famously, by creating and promoting the Red Bull Air Races.
They also have the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series, Red Bull Racing, and Red Bull Crashed Ice. Keep in mind that these aren’t just sponsorships. Instead, Red Bull has built an entire eco-system around the aspirational passions of the consumers it hopes to attract.
The aspirational connection between the Red Bull consumer and what the brand means to that consumer highlights why Nonlinear Marketing is a strategy and not just a tactic. In other words, a brand that is using Nonlinear Marketing to weave itself into the lives of its consumers creates experiences that are aspirational, engaging, and have purpose.
Keep in mind that Nonlinear Marketing isn’t just for larger brands with global footprints – it’s for smaller businesses and solopreneurs, too.
When Sree Sreenivasan, the New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Chief Digital Officer, was laid off from his job, he did the opposite of what most people would do (which would be to hide under a pile of blankets for a few days). Instead, he was fully transparent about the challenges he was facing and wove his story into the lives of his friends and family via Facebook and other social media outlets.
“If you want to invite me to anything, I now have time, including for meaningful cups of coffee and drinks,” he wrote.
The outpouring of support and empathy resulted in coverage about his dilemma on the BBC, PBS (Public Broadcasting System), the Columbia Journalism Review, ADWEEK, the Huffington Post, Fast Company and a variety of other media outlets.
The result? Six weeks after weaving his story into the lives of those around him, Mayor Bill de Blasio hired Sreenivasan as the chief digital officer for New York City.
By bypassing the traditional approaches to a job search and instead weaving his personal brand (and life circumstances) into the lives of those around him, Sree Sreenivasan was able to accomplish his goal (finding a new job) in a more authentic, purposeful way.
Frans Maheiu, the Global Marketing Director for Kimberly-Clark (makers of Huggies, Kotex, Kleenex, and other brands) summed Nonlinear Marketing up very well when he said this:
“The problem for marketers today is that it’s getting harder and harder to use traditional media to connect with consumers. In the 20th century, things were much simpler because media was dominated by TV, radio and print. Today, thanks to the Internet and digital marketing, things are much more complex, but also provide richer opportunities to connect at important consumer touch points. As a result, brands are exploring new techniques like Nonlinear Marketing to engage with consumers and provide a stronger and more durable connection.” — Frans Maheiu, Global Marketing Director for Kimberly-Clark
For many executives, understanding the nuances and application of Nonlinear Marketing takes time.
One way to wrap your mind around the concept is to observe and analyze other brands to see if they’re implementing a Nonlinear Marketing strategy.
Another way is to study the chart below, which provides a snapshot of the differences between Nonlinear Marketing and traditional marketing.
Building a Framework Around Nonlinear Marketing
In order to fully understand Nonlinear Marketing, it might help to examine a framework we’ve developed that illuminates key aspects of the consumer journey and the brand journey.
Traditionally, segmentation has been used to differentiate certain groups of customers from others.
Most marketers still use geography and demographics as the basis of their segmentation efforts. Other marketers dig a little deeper by overlaying geography and demographics with attitudinal, lifestyle, behavioral, and needs-based factors.
But you can go deeper still with a more nuanced appreciation of your prospects by understanding where they are in the customer life cycle. By recognizing where your prospect is in their journey with your brand, you’re better able to create a nonlinear sales web that captures them at the right moment and in the right mindset.
The Customer Life Cycle we’ve developed has four basic phases that vary with time. Those phases are as follows:
- Never Used: They have not purchased or used your product/service in the past.
- Novice User: They have only recently started using your product/service.
- Knowledgeable User: They are repeat customers.
- No Longer Using: They are lapsed customers who no longer use your product/service.
The chart below adds additional context and nuance to the Customer Life Cycle framework we’ve developed, specifically around the communication goals for each segment.
Let’s explore each element of this framework a little more deeply.
Never Used: The first phase is when a customer has never tried or never used a particular brand. An example would be a diaper brand targeting a newly married couple who haven’t had children yet. In this case, the couple’s involvement with the product and a new brand will be low. Their perception of differences between brands will also be low.
Since this couple has the potential to be a customer, we propose that a specific set of Nonlinear Marketing communication activities will be required to move them out of the Never Used phase into the User phase.
More specifically, we believe that marketing communication elements that raise both product and brand awareness and/or provide basic information to the new parents will be most effective.
Novice User: We call the second phase the Novice User Phase. Here, a customer has just entered the market, and is currently using a given brand, but still has not developed a strong belief set or connection with the brand and is still susceptible to brand switching.
An example of this might be a customer that has started taking Omega-3 supplements based on a doctor’s recommendation. For these customers, their involvement level with the product and brand will now be high. However, their perception of differences between brands will still be low. Thus, they may easily switch between one brand and several others.
As a result, the set of Nonlinear Marketing communication activities that are appropriate at this phase will be different from those targeted at non-users.
Thus, the best type of communication tool will be one that generates conversion to a given brand, stimulates sales of that brand, and helps to differentiate that brand from others.
Knowledgeable User: The third phase of the Customer Life Cycle we call the Knowledgeable User phase. In this phase, customers have been using a given brand for some time and feel comfortable in continuing to use it.
An example of this might be a middle-aged consumer who has driven cars since they turned 16 and now continues to drive various Toyota models.
Over time, this customer will have developed brand experiences that have solidified the meaning of the Toyota brand. Further they would also have developed specific brand feelings, attitudes and presumed behaviors that are fairly stable.
These customers have both high levels of product and brand involvement and are able to perceive differences between brands because of their extensive usage.
What a marketer must do to retain these customers for life will be quite different from what must be done to move a non-user into becoming a user or turning a novice user into a seasoned, knowledgeable user.
The goal for Nonlinear Marketing communications here is to encourage repeat brand purchase and develop long term loyalty so that the customer does not consider leaving the product category or the Toyota brand for as long as possible.
No Longer Using: The final phase of the Customer Life Cycle we call the No Longer Using phase. Marketers would ideally like to keep customers for life, however, there are situations when customers no longer need a particular product or service and therefore drop out of the market.
For example, there will come a time when a customer might want to sell his children’s bicycles or other toys since the children have grown up.
In this phase, product and brand involvement become low again. Adding to this issue are new innovations that constantly enter the market. Thus, this set of customers may not perceive differences between brands because they are no longer in the market or actively use any brand.
However, even with customers in this phase, marketers must think strategically about how they interact with them since this group of customers could become strong brand advocates for people in the other three phases.
In addition to the Customer Life Cycle, marketers need to understand the Brand Life Cycle, too. The Brand Life Cycle can be categorized into four dimensions:
- Brand Entrenchment: The same brand engaging the existing customers.
- Brand Expansion: The same brand engaging new customers.
- Brand Extraction: A new brand engaging with customers loyal to an existing brand.
- Brand Exploration: A new brand engaging new customers.
As we observed earlier, one way marketers can get more people to see their advertising is to spend more.
Unfortunately, much of that spending is wasted. The Brand Life Cycle we propose (see chart below) can help marketers think about their brand growth options and how they can select the right mix of marketing communications elements to create an effective Nonlinear Marketing campaign.
Brand Entrenchment: If the goal of the marketer is to get existing customers to use more of an existing brand, they’re in the Brand Entrenchment quadrant. The objective is to get more customers to use more of its brand. This can be done by either increasing the consumer’s quantity of use, or the frequency of use.
An excellent example of this is the brand A1 Steak Sauce.
A1 recommends on its package label to “refrigerate after opening.” While this labeling is often required for perishable products, A1 is shelf stable and does not need refrigeration.
However, Kraft Foods knows that consumers open the refrigerator door anywhere from 8-12 times per day on average but only open their cabinets about 2-3 times per day.
We all know that brand exposure leads to consumption, and A-1 leverages this by encouraging people to put the product in their refrigerator where they’ll see it more often.
Another way to get more usage from existing customers is to show how the brand can be used in a variety of situations.
An example of this might be Arm and Hammer baking soda. While its main use is for baking, Church & Dwight, the company that owns the brand, has shown that Arm and Hammer baking soda can be used in alternative ways.
It can be poured down sink drains and toilet seats to keep the bowls clean and fresh. It can be added to cat litter boxes to keep them smelling clean. It can even be kept for 3-6 months in customers’ refrigerators and freezers to keep odors at bay.
We suggest that if brand entrenchment is the marketer’s goal, they should strategically base their choice of marketing communication elements on what they have been doing already efficiently and with ease.
In the case of A1 and Arm and Hammer, if TV, Print, and Radio have worked well for a given set of customers, and these elements are already a part of the customers’ lives, then marketers should continue with this media strategy.
Brand Expansion: Other marketers may be ready to take an existing brand into new markets. We call this Brand Expansion.
The idea here is that your market share may have begun to peak and the only real way to grow is with new customers who have not yet been introduced to the brand. An example of this is the explosive growth realized by The Coca Cola Company when it launched the Coke brand in Asia and Latin America.
These markets were largely untapped in terms of cola products and The Coca Cola Company knew that growth would be easier to achieve if they went outside of the saturated US market.
In similar fashion, automobile manufacturers have been expanding globally now for decades. Most of the time, we hear about the big 3 US manufacturers expanding into Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. However, for the past 20 years or so, we have witnessed huge growth by Japanese and German automakers in the US.
In the case of Brand Expansion, the choice of which marketing communication elements to use will depend entirely upon the budget you have to reach new markets. Therefore, your budget will dictate which markets are most suitable based your ability to fund the expansion.
For example, when the brand Haagen Dazs launched in Europe, it quickly realized that it couldn’t outspend entrenched European manufacturers who occupied almost all of the existing grocery shelf space based on deep relationships with retailers.
Moreover, as a new brand, Haagen Dazs had to quickly get consumers to try it in order to get them to switch from their favorite European brands. So the company set up cafe-like shops where people could sample before they bought.
Once they tried the brand, they loved the brand and sales took off. In this example of Brand Expansion, Haagen Dazs broke down barriers of entry by developing a Nonlinear Marketing campaign that allowed customers to experience the brand (in the cafes) instead of just learning about the brand (if they had used traditional media).
Brand Extraction: Another way to achieve brand growth is to develop entirely new brands for your existing customers. If you achieve brand loyalty from your earlier efforts for specific segments of the market, you are likely to be able to launch new brands and enjoy similar success because these customers already know you, your brands, and what they can expect from your company.
The hotel industry has a number of good examples of Brand Exploration. Most of the large hotel parent companies have several different brands in their portfolios and most customers associate these varied brands with their parent company.
For example, Marriott owns the Marriott brand, Marriott’s Residence Inn, Courtyard by Marriott, Fairfield Inn, and the Ritz Carlton brand. However, Marriott also owns the Bulgari brand, Renaissance Hotels, The Moxy brand, Gaylord Hotels and Spring Hill Suites among others.
Marriott’s largest rival, The Intercontinental Hotel Group, is doing the same thing. It owns and has launched several new brands under the Intercontinental umbrella including Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza, Hotel Indigo, Staybridge Suites and the EVEN brand.
The idea behind this type of growth is to offer the same customers a variety of choices when it comes to hotels. And each option has different levels of luxury, different formats, and different pricing.
For organizations that want to grow through Brand Extension, the choice of marketing communication elements will largely be based on what you are good at.
In other words, it is based on your media expertise. If the parent company generates the best ROI by using TV, online display, and events, it is likely that these communications tools will be successful with new brand. This is because the basic product and how the company goes to market do not change much.
Brand Exploration: Finally, some brands can grow by what we call Brand Exploration. This is when a company launches a new brand to new users. While there are many options for launching a brand like this successfully, companies that enter new markets should thinking about what needs that market has; who already operates in that market; and what barriers to entry might exist.
A classic example of Brand Exploration was when Toyota decided to develop a new brand (Lexus) to appeal to a new customer segment (high income earners).
Members of that customer segment were already familiar with the value proposition of the Toyota brand that had been established over the previous decades. By leveraging the Toyota brand equity during the launch of the Lexus brand, the company was able to kick-start their launch and grow sales and revenues rapidly.
Another company that is in a constant state of Brand Exploration is Alphabet, the parent company of Google.
Alphabet realized that the only way for the company to continue to grow and prosper was to launch (or, in most cases, purchase) small brands that attracted different customer segments. As a result, the organization expends a significant amount of its energies and revenues analyzing and then developing (or purchasing) new brands for new customers.
Challenges and Risks for Brands that Want to Use Nonlinear Marketing
We’ve covered a lot of concepts in this blog post. They include an overview of the Customer Life Cycle and the Business Life Cycle. In addition, we’ve discussed how Nonlinear Marketing addresses the fluid and amorphous consumer journey from start to finish.
All that said, it’s important to note that Nonlinear Marketing is not a replacement for traditional marketing, it’s a supplement to it.
In other words, brands shouldn’t ignore traditional tactics such as TV, radio, print, outdoor, or direct mail. Instead, they should leverage those tactics in new and innovative ways that work to supplement other elements of their Nonlinear Marketing campaigns.
It’s also worth noting that Nonlinear Marketing is not a silver bullet that will solve every marketer’s problems. In fact, we’ve identified four key challenges that marketers should keep in mind if they want to introduce Nonlinear Marketing into their organizations.
Scale: If you want to launch a new marketing campaign across a national or international geography, there’s nothing like traditional media to help you do so quickly. In some cases, that can be as simple as expanding a media plan and approving budgets. With Nonlinear Marketing, it’s more difficult to scale-up because it requires more planning and more patience.
Resources: Many components of a Nonlinear Marketing campaign are more experiential in nature. As a result, they can require more coordination, labor and resources from the organization, which may be problematic for companies with limited marketing staffs.
Tracking ROI: We live in a digital age where many campaigns result in clicks and conversions that make tracking ROI much simpler than in the past. Nonlinear Marketing campaigns are more difficult to track on an ROI basis because of the nature of the campaigns. (Imaging trying to calculate the ROI of the smell of the coffee beans at Starbucks and you’ll see what we mean.)
Speed: We would argue that Nonlinear Marketing campaigns create a deeper more meaningful relationship with prospects and customers. We would also argue that those relationships are built up over time. If you’re in a hurry, Nonlinear Marketing might not be for you, but if you’re in it for the long haul, then we believe it’s the future of marketing.
Putting Nonlinear Marketing to Work for Your Business
What’s the best way to get started with Nonlinear Marketing? The first step is to re-frame your thinking from the traditional 20th century model of interrupting a consumer’s life experience to the 21st century model of becoming part of a consumer’s life experience.
That’s no small thing, but it’s at the core of every successful Nonlinear Marketing campaign.
The next step is to study the Nonlinear Marketing campaigns being run by companies like Red Bull, AirBnB, Lego and others. Those organizations don’t view this kind of marketing as a series of simple tactics. Instead, they view it as a way of life for their brands. Their brands exist within the consumer’s life, which creates greater brand loyalty and mind share than traditional methodologies.
Finally, you’ll need to get organizational buy-in for a Nonlinear Marketing campaign from your business partners. Traditionalists will push back; CFOs will want immediate evidence of a return-on-investment; and CEOs will question your judgment.
But remember –– a shift to Nonlinear Marketing doesn’t have to be a revolution within your organization. Instead, it can be an evolution that takes place over time. That way, you can rely on traditional methodologies to keep things moving forward while introducing a long-term Nonlinear Marketing strategy to your plans for the future.
The bottom line is that traditional consumer behavior and consumer decision-making models don’t accurately reflect the 21st century realities.
In addition, media fragmentation and consumer resistance to advertising has made it even more difficult to interrupt a consumer’s life with a traditional advertising campaign.
As a result, more and more organizations are shifting to a Nonlinear Marketing strategy where deep and meaningful experiences are woven into the fabric of a consumer’s life in order to create demand and inspire purchase.
More Information About Jamie Turner, Dr. Reshma Shah, and Dr. Varsha Jain
Whether they call it Nonlinear Marketing or something else, many brands have been implementing this strategy as a way to confront the dynamics of consumer behavior and media consumption habits.
The concept was expanded upon by Jamie Turner, Dr. Reshma Shah, and Dr. Varsha Jain in a variety of platforms. What follows is additional information about each of these marketing and business experts.
Jamie Turner is an internationally recognized author, speaker, and CEO who speaks about business, digital media, and leadership at events, conferences, and corporations around the globe. He has been profiled in one of the world’s best selling marketing textbooks, is the author of several business books, and can be seen regularly on CNN and HLN. He can be reached at +1-678-313-3472 or via email at [email protected].
Dr. Reshma Shah is an Associate Professor in the Practice of Marketing at the Goizueta Business School of Emory University. Her marketing strategies and insights have helped companies such as Delta, GE, IBM, and UPS and others improve their marketing ROI. Her articles have appeared in several academic journals and she is the co-author of two best-selling books on Social Media and Emerging Markets.
Dr. Varsha Jain is an Associate Professor in Integrated Marketing Communications and the Chair, Dissertation, Co-chair, Research at the MICA (India). Dr. Varsha has authored 94 publications in primarily in international journals and case collections such as Journal of Product and Brand Management, the Journal of Marketing Communication, the Journal of Consumer Marketing, Ivey, Emerald case collections and others.